The Nature Reserve of the Endorreic Complex of Lebrija-Las Cabezas, together with that of Espera, are the last redoubt of a great lagoon system that ran through the entire countryside between Seville and Cadiz. Human activity has gradually reduced the wetland to the lagoons of La Cigarrera, Galiana, Peña, Pilón, Taraje (the only permanent one) and Charroao, known as Bujadillo or Herradura.
These lagoons, which are small and shallow, depend on the intensity of the rainfall. The strong sunshine and high evaporation rates in this area condition the seasonal nature of most of the lagoons.
The intense and historical agricultural exploitation of the environment, as evidenced by the remains of a Roman house in the Taraje lagoon, condition a scarce natural vegetation. Nevertheless, there are small patches of wild olive trees, kermes oaks and mastic trees, which are located in the most abrupt areas, together with isolated holm oaks.
On the other hand, the vegetation round the lagoon has been strongly altered by human presence, as proven by the limited presence of bulrushes, reeds and some isolated stands of tamarisks and wild olive trees. La Cigarrera lagoon, which is in the best condition, has a better-preserved belt of vegetation formed by an extensive marshland and various types of reed: thorny, toad and maritime.
The faunistic importance of the nature reserve lies in its role as a support area for interesting bird populations, as it constitutes a breeding, reproduction and stopover area during migrations for numerous species of birds. Anatidae and coots are the most abundant, but there is also seasonal presence of horned coots, flamingos, herons, ducks and some birds of prey.
Apart from birds, you can observe snakes, bastard and viperine snakes, common frogs, common toads and a small number of mammals that sporadically visit the lagoons: foxes, weasels, genets, badgers and mongooses.