The last stretch of the River Guadalquivir’s right bank has been dotted with settlements and cities since ancient times because the river provided resources and a communication route that enabled trade and contact between the inhabitants of the territory.
This included Celti, antecedent of Peñaflor, located next to the modern urban centre. It was inhabited from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD. Celti, situated on a topographical elevation and crossroads, played an essential role as a waypoint on the Hispalis-Corduba road (East-West axis) that ran along the right bank of the Guadalquivir. It was an alternative to the Via Augusta, located further inland, to reach Carmo and Astigi. Furthermore, this was the place where the Astigi-Emerita road (North-South axis) crossed the river, in an area near the mouth of the Singlis (Genil).
Celti has a walled area, urban planning, monumental architecture and infrastructure (road, sewerage, industries and funeral home). The city gained the status of municipium civium romanorum in the Flavian period (from 74 AD), which would influence its subsequent development. From the middle of the first century, and especially in the second century, the city and its surrounding area experienced a boom, primarily due to the olive oil trade and the excellent network of land and river communication it enjoyed. This is confirmed by significant remains such as the bridge over the River Retortillo and the El Higuerón cyclopean dyke, which are probably from this period.