The Peñón de Zaframagón is located between the towns of Olvera (Cádiz) and Coripe (Seville), in the last foothills of the Grazalema mountain range, where the Sub-Baetic range borders the River Guadalquivir depression.
The 584-metre high Peñon is a dolomitic limestone mass with steep walls. To the east, it descends forming a gentle slope that ends in a small escarpment. The west, northwest and southwest faces are formed by cliffs with vertical walls and drops of over 200 metres. The area around the Peñon has a typical karstic morphology. The El Estrechón Gorge carved out by the River Guadalporcún, is particularly noteworthy. This narrow canyon has vertical walls that have boxed in the river, creating typical karst forms, including giant sinkholes and pools that hold water even during the dry period.
Rock plant species can be found on the walls and rocky escarpments of the Peñon. The vegetation in the surrounding area, which is also part of the Nature Reserve, is quite degraded, with only scattered patches of Mediterranean scrub, and a few holm oaks, wild olives and carob trees. Well-preserved riparian vegetation grows near the confluence of the Guadalporcún and Guadalmanil rivers close to the Rock, including willows, ashes and elms, as well as other species adapted to seasonal watercourses, such as oleanders and tamarisks.
The presence of one of Europe’s largest nesting colonies of griffon vultures is the most significant feature of the Peñon from the wildlife perspective. Due to the area’s inaccessibility, it is also an ideal refuge for a wide variety of bird species and small mammals.
Although access is restricted, the area around El Peñón, outside the protected area of the Nature Reserve, can be reached by the Sierra Greenway.